Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs when either the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar. Hyperglycaemia, or raised blood sugar, is a common effect of uncontrolled diabetes. Over time, it can lead to serious damage to many of the body's systems, especially the nerves and blood vessels. Type 1 diabetes is characterized by deficient insulin production, and requires daily administration of insulin. Neither the cause of type 1 diabetes, nor the means to prevent it, are known. Type 2 diabetes results from the body’s ineffective use of insulin, and is the most common type of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is largely the result of excess body weight and physical inactivity, and is influenced by factors such as race, ethnicity and age. If undiagnosed or poorly managed, people living with diabetes face unnecessary risks of debilitating and irreversible complications. Over time, diabetes can lead to serious damage to the heart, eyes, kidneys and nerves, increasing the risk of limb amputation, loss of vision and early death.