Is screening for chronic kidney disease in patients with diabetes mellitus being properly conducted in primary care?
Jaquelice Aparecida Lopes,Mariana Caroliny Ferreira,Alba Otoni,André Oliveira Baldoni,Caroline Pereira Domingueti
Screening patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) for chronic kidney disease (CKD) enables early diagnosis and helps to establish adequate treatment and avoid possible damages to health associated with disease progression. This study aimed to verify whether screening for CKD has been properly conducted in populations with diabetes mellitus seen at primary care clinics.
This descriptive study included 265 individuals with DM seen at Basic Healthcare Clinics in Divinópolis, MG, Brazil. Clinical and laboratory data were collected from the Integrated Health System. Frequency of testing and kidney function evaluations performed within the last 12 months were calculated along with the proportion of patients with increased urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to determine the proportion of patient with kidney involvement.
We found that 41.2% of the patients had kidney involvement and that 61.2% of the individuals with kidney involvement were on nephroprotective medication. Of the 21.9% tested for isolated albuminuria, 46.5% had increased UAE. The albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) was measured in 12.1% of the patients, with 43.8% having an increased ACR. We found that 89.0% of the patients had their serum creatinine levels measured, and that 33.1% had a decreased GFR.
CKD screening was more frequently performed via the GFR than UAE, a parameter analyzed only in a small proportion of patients. Therefore, CKD screening for patients with diabetes is not being performed properly in primary care.